Mary Cassatt
Mary Cassatt's Oil Paintings
Mary Cassatt Museum
May 22, 1844 - June 14, 1926. Was an American painter.

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Mary Cassatt
Feeding the Ducks
1895 Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
ID: 03137

Mary Cassatt Feeding the Ducks
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Mary Cassatt Feeding the Ducks


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Mary Cassatt

1844-1926 Mary Cassatt Galleries Within months of her return to Europe in the autumn of 1871, Cassatt??s prospects had brightened. Her painting Two Women Throwing Flowers During Carnival was well received in the Salon of 1872, and was purchased. She attracted much favorable notice in Parma and was supported and encouraged by the art community there: ??All Parma is talking of Miss Cassatt and her picture, and everyone is anxious to know her??. After completing her commission for the archbishop, Cassatt traveled to Madrid and Seville, where she painted a group of paintings of Spanish subjects, including Spanish Dancer Wearing a Lace Mantilla (1873, in the National Museum of American Art, Smithsonian Institution). In 1874, she made the decision to take up residence in France. She was joined by her sister Lydia who shared an apartment with her. Cassatt continued to express criticism of the politics of the Salon and the conventional taste that prevailed there. She was blunt in her comments, as reported by Sartain, who wrote: ??she is entirely too slashing, snubs all modern art, disdains the Salon pictures of Cabanel, Bonnat, all the names we are used to revere??. Cassatt saw that works by female artists were often dismissed with contempt unless the artist had a friend or protector on the jury, and she would not flirt with jurors to curry favor. Her cynicism grew when one of the two pictures she submitted in 1875 was refused by the jury, only to be accepted the following year after she darkened the background. She had quarrels with Sartain, who thought Cassatt too outspoken and self-centered, and eventually they parted. Out of her distress and self-criticism, Cassatt decided that she needed to move away from genre paintings and onto more fashionable subjects, in order to attract portrait commissions from American socialites abroad, but that attempt bore little fruit at first. In 1877, both her entries were rejected, and for the first time in seven years she had no works in the Salon. At this low point in her career she was invited by Edgar Degas to show her works with the Impressionists, a group that had begun their own series of independent exhibitions in 1874 with much attendant notoriety. The Impressionists (also known as the ??Independents?? or ??Intransigents??) had no formal manifesto and varied considerably in subject matter and technique. They tended to prefer open air painting and the application of vibrant color in separate strokes with little pre-mixing, which allows the eye to merge the results in an ??impressionistic?? manner. The Impressionists had been receiving the wrath of the critics for several years. Henry Bacon, a friend of the Cassatts, thought that the Impressionists were so radical that they were ??afflicted with some hitherto unknown disease of the eye??. They already had one female member, artist Berthe Morisot, who became Cassatt??s friend and colleague. Degas, Portrait of Miss Cassatt, Seated, Holding Cards, c. 1876-1878, oil on canvasCassatt admired Degas, whose pastels had made a powerful impression on her when she encountered them in an art dealer's window in 1875. "I used to go and flatten my nose against that window and absorb all I could of his art," she later recalled. "It changed my life. I saw art then as I wanted to see it." She accepted Degas' invitation with enthusiasm, and began preparing paintings for the next Impressionist show, planned for 1878, which (after a postponement because of the World??s Fair) took place on April 10, 1879. She felt comfortable with the Impressionists and joined their cause enthusiastically, declaring: ??we are carrying on a despairing fight & need all our forces??. Unable to attend cafes with them without attracting unfavorable attention, she met with them privately and at exhibitions. She now hoped for commercial success selling paintings to the sophisticated Parisians who preferred the avant-garde. Her style had gained a new spontaneity during the intervening two years. Previously a studio-bound artist, she had adopted the practice of carrying a sketchbook with her while out-of-doors or at the theater, and recording the scenes she saw. Summertime, c. 1894, oil on canvasIn 1877, Cassatt was joined in Paris by her father and mother, who returned with her sister Lydia. Mary valued their companionship, as neither she nor Lydia had married. Mary had decided early in life that marriage would be incompatible with her career. Lydia, who was frequently painted by her sister, suffered from recurrent bouts of illness, and her death in 1882 left Cassatt temporarily unable to work. Cassatt??s father insisted that her studio and supplies be covered by her sales, which were still meager. Afraid of having to paint ??potboilers?? to make ends meet, Cassatt applied herself to produce some quality paintings for the next Impressionist exhibition. Three of her most accomplished works from 1878 were Portrait of the Artist (self-portrait), Little Girl in a Blue Armchair, and Reading Le Figaro (portrait of her mother). Degas had considerable influence on Cassatt. She became extremely proficient in the use of pastels, eventually creating many of her most important works in this medium. Degas also introduced her to etching, of which he was a recognized master. The two worked side-by-side for awhile, and her draftsmanship gained considerable strength under his tutelage. He depicted her in a series of etchings recording their trips to the Louvre. She had strong feelings for him but learned not to expect too much from his fickle and temperamental nature. The sophisticated and well-dressed Degas, then forty-five, was a welcome dinner guest at the Cassatt residence. The Impressionist exhibit of 1879 was the most successful to date, despite the absence of Renoir, Sisley, Manet and C??zanne, who were attempting once again to gain recognition at the Salon. Through the efforts of Gustave Caillebotte, who organized and underwrote the show, the group made a profit and sold many works, although the criticism continued as harsh as ever. The Revue des Deux Mondes wrote, ??M. Degas and Mlle. Cassatt are, nevertheless, the only artists who distinguish themselves??and who offer some attraction and some excuse in the pretentious show of window dressing and infantile daubing??. Cassatt displayed eleven works, including La Loge. Although critics claimed that Cassatt??s colors were too bright and that her portraits were too accurate to be flattering to the subjects, her work was not savaged as was Monet's, whose circumstances were the most desperate of all the Impressionists at that time. She used her share of the profits to purchase a work by Degas and one by Monet. She exhibited in the Impressionist Exhibitions that followed in 1880 and 1881, and she remained an active member of the Impressionist circle until 1886. In 1886, Cassatt provided two paintings for the first Impressionist exhibition in the United States, organized by art dealer Paul Durand-Ruel. Her friend Louisine Elder married Harry Havemeyer in 1883, and with Cassatt as advisor, the couple began collecting the Impressionists on a grand scale. Much of their vast collection is now in the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City. She also made several portraits of family members during that period, of which Portrait of Alexander Cassatt and His Son Robert Kelso (1885) is one of her best regarded. Cassatt??s style then evolved, and she moved away from Impressionism to a simpler, more straightforward approach. She began to exhibit her works in New York galleries as well. After 1886, Cassatt no longer identified herself with any art movement and experimented with a variety of techniques.   Related Paintings of Mary Cassatt :. | Child in a Straw Hat | Maternite | Balcony | Sara Handing a Toy to the Baby | Mary |
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pehr hillestrom
Pehr Hilleström (1732-1816) var en svensk målare och vävare, professor vid Konstakademiens läroverk från 1794 och dess direktör från 1810. I unga år var han en av Sveriges främsta gobelängvävare men övergick sedan till måleri. Han är mest känd för sina vardagsskildringar av sin tids levnadssätt. Han målade pigor och tjänstefolk som arbetar, överklassen i de fina salarna, enkelt folk i stugorna och bilder från olika bruksmiljöer. Genom det räknas han som den största skildraren av den gustavianska samtiden. Pehr Hilleström är far till konstnären Carl Petter Hilleström och farfars farfars far till Gustaf Hilleström. Pehr Hilleström föddes i 1732 Väddö, Roslagen, troligtvis den 18 november. Han växte upp under fattiga omständigheter på Väddö prästgård vid sin farbror som var kyrkoherde där. Han var son till en militär och äldst i en syskonskara på 12 barn. Hans far råkade redan 1719 i rysk fångenskap men hade 1723 lyckats återvända till Sverige och då tagit sin tillflykt till brodern på Väddö. 1743 flyttade familjen Hilleström från Roslagen till Stockholm, där Pehr, 10 år gammal, sattes i lära hos tapet- och landskapsmålaren Johan Philip Korn (1727-1796) samt mellan åren 1744-1747 även hos den invandrade tyske solfjädermålaren Christian Fehmer. Utöver detta fick han även undervisning vid kungliga ritareakademin där Guillaume Thomas Taraval (1701-1750) och Jean Eric Rehn (1717-1793) var läromästare. Efter inrådan från Carl Hårleman sattes Hilleström 1745 i lära hos Jean Louis Duru (-1753). Duru var hautelissevävare och hade kallats till Sverige för att göra textila utsmyckningen av Stockholms slott. Tanken var att Hilleström skulle utbildas till Durus medhjälpare. 1749 visade Hilleström upp ett första läroprov som visades upp för deputationen som gillade det så mycket så att han fick en belöning på 180 daler kopparmynt. När Duru dog i slutet av 1753 så fick Hilleström fullborda den påbörjade kappan för tronhimmelen i det kungliga audiensrummet. Han var då så skicklig att det knappt kunde märkas någon skillnad mellan hans och hans lärares arbete. Lönen var blygsam men vid 1756 års riksdag fick han samma årslön som Duru hade haft, och han fick en beställning på ett vävt porträtt av Hårleman utfört i hautelisse. Åren 1757-58 var Hilleström på en längre och för tidens konstnärer sedvanlig studieresa till utlandet. Färden gick till Paris, Belgien och Holland, bland annat med en vidareutbildning i gobelängteknikerna som mål. I Paris blir Hilleström erbjuden att studera måleri i François Bouchers atelj??, men störst intryck tog han där av genre- och stillebenmålaren Jean-Baptiste-Sim??on Chardin, som undervisade honom vid franska målarakademien. Väl hemma i Stockholm fortsatte han visserligen att göra tapeter, mattor, stolsöverdrag och dylikt för hovet. Men så småningom fylldes slottet behov av vävnader samtidigt som Hilleström fortsatte studera måleri.
Beckwith James Carroll
American, 1852-1917 was an American portrait painter. He was born at Hannibal, Missouri, on 23 September 1852. He studied in the National Academy of Design, New York City, of which he afterwards became a member, and in Paris (1873-1878) under Carolus Duran. Returning to the United States in 1878, he gradually became a prominent figure in American art. He took an active part in the formation of The Fine Arts Society, and was president of the National Free Art League, which attempted to secure the repeal of the American duty on works of art. Among his portraits are those of William Merritt Chase (1882), Miss Jordan (1883), Mark Twain, Thomas Allibone Janvier, John Schofield and William Walton. He taught at the Art Students League of New York -- where Violet Oakley was one of his students
Aert de Gelder
Dutch 1645-1727 Dutch painter and draughtsman. He was the son of a wealthy Dordrecht family and probably became a pupil of Samuel van Hoogstraten in 1660. Apparently on the advice of van Hoogstraten, de Gelder moved to Amsterdam and entered Rembrandt workshop, possibly c. 1661. It is commonly assumed that he stayed there about two years. He was Rembrandt last pupil. After completing his apprenticeship, de Gelder returned to Dordrecht, where he worked for the rest of his long career. Considering that de Gelder was active for more than half a century, his output of just over 100 paintings seems low, probably because he was financially independent. Of those paintings accepted as by him, only 22 are dated, creating considerable problems in establishing a chronology.






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